In the world of HBO’s Game of Thrones, the continent of Westeros is historically split into several different regions, each of them ruled over by a different family.
While the term “The Seven Kingdoms” is used in both the show and in creator George RR Martin‘s books, at the time the series is set the land in question is actually divided into nine areas, rather than seven. (Years ago, before a unification took place, there were seven separate kingdoms, which explains why the phrase is still used.)
For many years Westeros, save for the wild area beyond The Wall in the North, has been controlled by a monarch from the Iron Throne of King’s Landing, who in the past was always a member of the ruling Targaryen family (who invaded the continent, with the aid of their dragons, many years before).
Ahead of the events of the show, however, a rebellion ousted the last Targaryen king and replaced him with King Robert Baratheon, who died in the first season.